IQ – Intelligence quotient is the result of IQ tests, which show mental abilities including reasoning, abstract and logical thinking, and learning speed. Nowadays, it is known that intelligence tests are not the only determinant of success in life.
IQ-INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT-WHAT IS IT AND HOW CAN WE CALCULATE IT?
To calculate the popular IQ, specialized tests are used. Modern intelligence tests take the form of short tasks and are divided into blocks corresponding to skills such as: linguistic, arithmetic, associative, analytical, and spatial.
The test result is their outcome and represents the intelligence quotient. It is worth knowing that tests are constructed so that the average result is 100 units, which means that IQ from 90 to 110 is defined as average intelligence, while higher than 110 is above-average intelligence and lower than 90 is below-average intelligence.
WHAT INFLUENCES IQ-INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT?
Research in contemporary psychology does not give a clear answer to what factors influence intellectual abilities. However, it is known that IQ depends on the development of the cerebral cortex.
It is these structures that are responsible for the components of intelligence, such as logical and abstract thinking, knowledge acquisition, and problem-solving ability. Therefore, if parents properly stimulate a child’s mind from an early age, a network of connections between neurons responsible for IQ will be created.
Although there are many scientific studies confirming that genetic factors have the greatest impact on intelligence, it should be emphasized that there are also many others that suggest that environmental factors prevail.
HOW TO DEVELOP A CHILD’S INTELLIGENCE?
IQ can be developed from a young age. During this period, the development of the brain cortex, which receives impulses mainly from the senses, is crucial for the development of intelligence. Therefore, activities such as hugging, rocking, singing, and storytelling are essential for the development of intelligence.
It is important to emphasize that children of mothers who suffered from postpartum depression achieve lower results in intelligence tests. This is mainly because even though the mothers physically take care of their children, they do not show emotions, which does not allow the children to see smiles and other expressions that significantly stimulate their brains.
It is also important to note that, according to scientists from the Medical Research Council, breastfeeding has a positive impact on IQ. However, they emphasize that it is a significant factor only in combination with other factors, such as high socio-economic status, mother’s education, and good family conditions.
Scientists from the New York University Steinhardt School also found that the diet of pregnant women and newborns had a positive impact on IQ. It is essential that their diet is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, which support the formation and development of nerve cells.
The next phase of a child’s intelligence development begins around the age of 3, which is usually when a child goes to kindergarten. During this period, the senses do not play as significant a role, and intelligence develops through curiosity and imagination.
Children who constantly ask questions such as “What is it?” and “Why?” may often annoy their parents, but they are working on developing their intelligence, which subsequently increases their IQ. Therefore, reading books, including interactive ones, in which the parent acts only as a storyteller, is ideal.
The aforementioned American scientists also found that IQ is higher in children who attend preschool than in those who stay at home.
It is also important to note that scientists from the Steinhardt School at New York University considered it untrue that children who start learning earlier than their peers are more intelligent.
NEWS QUOTIENT-IMPACT ON LIFE SUCCESS
Scientists led by the outstanding American psychologist Daniel Goleman prove that in addition to intellectual intelligence, there is also emotional intelligence, which can bring success only in combination with high IQ.
It cannot be measured by IQ meters. It concerns the recognition of our own and other people’s feelings, managing emotions, and the ability to motivate oneself and the people we have relationships with. Currently, psychology also emphasizes the importance of moral intelligence and physical intelligence, which are important for achieving success together with intellectual and emotional intelligence.
Research by the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh found that 85% of professional and financial success depends on personality, negotiation, communication skills, and leadership. The rest depends on technical knowledge.
THE MOST COMMON FACTS AND MYTHS ABOUT IQ
The term IQ has become a part of common language and is known not only among professionals, but also among the general public. The great interest in IQ measurement among the public brings with it a multitude of myths and unanswered questions. We often encounter a large number of inaccurate information that has been circulating in society for decades. Today, we will present answers and explanations to the most common facts and myths related to IQ.
1. IQ AND HEREDITY-DO WE INHERIT IMTELLIGENCE FROM OUR MOTHER?
It is proven that intelligence is hereditary. We often hear that IQ is largely inherited from our mothers. Is this a fact or a myth?
Previous studies have shown that the X chromosomes contain important intelligence genes. Biologically, women have two X chromosomes (XX), while men have one X chromosome and one Y chromosome (XY). And it is precisely because women have two X chromosomes that they allegedly become carriers of “intelligence genes,” and children have up to twice the likelihood of acquiring intelligence from their mother.
However, this reasoning has clear gaps. Although mothers have two X chromosomes, they are not identical chromosomes, as one is inherited from their fathers and the other from their mothers. Therefore, a woman only passes on one X chromosome to her child, and the child acquires the other chromosome from their father.
According to older findings, X chromosomes are enriched with genes that are responsible for the development of general intelligence in humans. However, there is currently no recent study that proves that key intelligence genes are located precisely on the X chromosome. So far, no specific genes that significantly influence IQ have been identified. Researchers believe that IQ represents the sum of hundreds, maybe even thousands of scattered genes that contribute to overall IQ to varying degrees. There is, therefore, no specific “intelligence gene.”
Therefore, the idea that a mother’s genes are the main component determining a child’s intelligence is a MYTH. Whether the level of intelligence comes from the mother or the father, we cannot yet determine with certainty, but it is probably a combination of genes from both parents.
It is also important to note that IQ is the result of the interaction of both genetic and environmental determinants, i.e., a combination of genes and the environment. Even a child with very high innate intelligence can achieve poor results in IQ testing if they grow up in an unsuitable environment.
2. IQ AND GENDER-ARE MEN MORE INTELLIGENT THAN A WOMEN?
Researchers agree that there is no difference in average IQ between genders. Historically, however, it was believed that men were intellectually superior to women.
One of the reasons for this stereotype may be that historically, male personalities who made important scientific or technological discoveries were significantly more dominant. Women, who in most cases did not have the opportunity to participate in similar activities, are much rarer here.
Even the first scholars and educated people were men – priests who belonged to a small number of people who could read and write. The absence of women in intellectual circles may have contributed significantly to the perception of gender differences.
Currently, these persistent gender stereotypes are changing. However, differences between genders may manifest themselves in specific areas of intelligence. Men are better at spatial orientation and imagination or nonverbal tasks. On the other hand, women have better vocabulary, speech fluency, or reading skills. In general, however, we can say that women and men are equally intelligent on average.
3.IQ AND SUCCESS-ARE PEOPLE WITH HIGHER IQ MORE SUCCESSFUL IN THE WORKPLACE?
According to psychologist John Antonakis, IQ is the most important predictor of work success. This is because IQ includes the ability to think, process information, and use it to solve problems. However, is IQ the only determinant of success?
Of course, success requires more than just high IQ. Personality also plays an important role. However, if high IQ is combined with sufficient motivation, ambition, perseverance, conscientiousness, opportunity, and clear thinking ability, then the path to success is almost certain.
Therefore, high IQ is not a guarantee of success. Nor does it mean that a less intelligent person will fail. Critics emphasize that an individual’s social skills are more important than IQ.
The influence of motivation is also emphasized. Although Albert Einstein had an IQ of 160, he was not successful just because of that. If he did not have motivation and determination, he would never have discovered the theory of relativity. The fact that IQ predicts success does not mean that it determines it.
Imagine that IQ is like a person’s height. If a person is tall, it increases the likelihood that they will be a good basketball player, but it does not mean that a tall person is automatically good at basketball. There are many more factors at play than just height.
Therefore, having a high IQ is not enough.
4. DOES BRAIN SIZE AFFECTS INTELLIGENCE?
The relationship between brain size and human intelligence has been studied for several decades. As early as the end of the 19th century, Francis Galton attempted to determine the relationship between brain volume and intelligence by measuring skull size. His measurements are now considered pseudoscientific, but they were still useful as they led to further empirical research.
For a long time, the claim that a larger brain means higher intelligence was considered a myth. However, studies in recent years have shown that there is almost certainly a positive correlation between brain volume and human intelligence. Today, brain volume is no longer measured with tailor’s tape, but through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which provides images of internal organs and tissues. Thanks to more modern technology and greater opportunities, more and more researchers are focusing on this question. It seems that there is some truth to this claim, which was long considered a myth.
But does a larger brain necessarily make us more intelligent? We can say that a larger brain is associated with slightly higher IQ. However, it is still unknown whether a large brain causes high intelligence. Therefore, when determining intelligence, we should not rely solely on brain size.