Borderline personality disorder, avoidant disorder, histrionic personality disorder, narcissism, antisocial personality disorder… Sometimes it can be difficult to determine which personality disorders are present in a specific patient. Diagnosing them can also be complicated due to complex criteria.
Personality disorders really exist and if left untreated, they can make a person’s life difficult and affect their relationships with others. That’s why it’s so important to recognize them and understand the possibilities for their treatment. What are personality disorders? What are the types of personality disorders? Can they be treated, and what is the treatment? Keep reading!
WHAT ARE PERSONALITY DISORDERS?
Personality disorders are not just about mental crises. It is a disorder that affects the very structure, the core of what makes up the entire human personality.
In this approach, personality disorders are established patterns that determine a person’s behavior, perception of reality, or approach to interpersonal relationships. These are characteristic features that are permanent. Personality disorders not only affect how a person perceives other people and the world around them, but also how they think or perceive themselves.
Personality disorders can make it difficult, even impossible, to establish healthy interpersonal relationships and negatively affect family, work, and social life.
PERSONALITY DISORDERS – CAUSES
Personality disorders arise from complex causes. Biological, psychosocial, and genetic factors should be taken into account. In the past, genetic factors were not the subject of intensive research. Researchers focused more on family factors. Causes such as unsatisfied needs for safety and love, stress, family conflicts, but also disrupted contacts between family members were indicated.
In this approach, all disturbed and abnormal relationships between the child and parents are very important for the development of personality disorders. Excessive protection, emotional coldness, constant control, and inability to make decisions. Specific personality disorders often manifest in adolescence, but childhood personality disorders or early signs of them are also common.
TYPES OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS
Personality disorders are a very diverse group of disorders. The classification is very varied. However, there are still different types of disorders. What are these disorders?
In the case of paranoid personality disorder, individuals are excessively suspicious. It has nothing to do with healthy distrust. Such people believe that the whole world is against them and they think that everyone wants to harm them. All of this causes such people to be very mistrustful, stay away from people, and lead a lonely way of life. They are also not inclined to forgive other people because they see deception and ill-will everywhere.
People with schizoid personality disorder are characterized by extreme individualism. They are not interested in lasting relationships with other people and often do not even care about their own sexuality. Contact with other people is not satisfying for them.
People with antisocial personality disorder are impulsive and often aggressive. They deny the existence of all rules and therefore sometimes repeatedly come into conflict with the law. It also happens that they reach for various types of stimulants – including drugs or alcohol.
Histrionic personality disorder is associated with a constant and enormous need to be at the center of attention. People suffering from this disorder will do anything to achieve their goal. They do not respect generally accepted rules and behave inappropriately. Their behavior is often characterized by a high degree of sexuality and seductive behavior.
In the case of borderline personality disorder, disturbed individuals often fall from one emotional state to another. This behavior is burdensome not only for them but also for their closest environment. Relationships with them are like on a swing. They go from extremes to extremes – from euphoria to deep despair, from declarations of love to declarations of hot hatred.
Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Narcissistic Personality Disorder is essentially and simplified, an improperly calibrated self-love. Individuals with a narcissistic personality have a large amount of self-love. Such individuals are convinced of their uniqueness and believe that they are created for higher purposes. A narcissist loves only themselves and is focused on themselves and their needs. Relationships with a narcissist are destructive and toxic. A narcissist needs other people as long as they are capable of fulfilling their needs. Individuals with a narcissistic personality can manipulate others to achieve their goals and do not worry that their behavior could harm someone.
Avoidant Personality Disorder
Avoidant Personality Disorder is about constant fear. A person with an avoidant personality feels a paralyzing fear that makes it difficult or even impossible to make decisions. Such individuals cannot establish and maintain relationships with other people. Avoidant personality is often accompanied by very low self-confidence and a strong fear of criticism from others.
Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
Individuals with Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder are extreme perfectionists. Everything must be done in the order set by certain people, taking into account even the smallest details – even if they are unimportant or even imperceptible to other people.
PERSONALITY DISORDER – TREATMENT
The first step to success is admitting that you have a problem. Contrary to popular belief, this is very difficult because people with personality disorders may not realize that their behavior is inappropriate and requires change.
Psychotherapy is the cornerstone of personality disorder treatment. Psychotherapy in the psychodynamic approach is very often used – long-term therapy, which brings great successes and helps people who undergo it and work systematically on themselves.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy and its various types are also used. Regardless of the type of psychotherapy, it is very important for its success that a bond based on trust and mutual commitment is established between the patient and the therapist.